Nationality in Niger is governed by the 1984 nationality code as modified in 1999 and 2014. The 1999 amendment allowed Nigerien women to transmit their nationality to their children on equal terms with men. Women were still not able to pass on their nationality to their spouse on the same basis as men. The 2014 amendment removed restrictions on dual nationality and also removed gender inequality in transmission of nationality between spouses.

In 2009, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child noted with appreciation that Niger had enacted legislation which is intended to increase birth registration, but was concerned that birth registration had in fact decreased, and was still difficult in rural and remote areas.