Who are the “permanent inhabitants” of the state?: citizenship policies and border controls in Tanzania, 1920-1980
Source: University of Iowa
Charlotte Lee Miller, “Who are the “permanent inhabitants” of the state?: citizenship policies and border controls in Tanzania, 1920-1980.” PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa, 2011.
From 1920 to 1980, British colonial authorities and post-colonial Tanzanian leaders struggled with African mobility and identities. State officials viewed bordercrossers, including labor migrants, refugees, immigrants, and smugglers, as problematic. During the colonial period, persistent African mobility and flexible, multi-faceted identities led the state to abandon attempts to control African migrant laborers. As the state transitioned to independence, nationalist leaders created Tanzanian citizenship and claimed to embrace trans-border African mobility in order to reject colonial racist views and promote Pan-Africanism. However almost immediately following independence, concerns about security, political opposition, land-use, and the economy actually contributed to state attempts to harden borders. Examining citizenship legislation and border controls reveals the tensions between border-crossers, and the Tanzanian colonial and post-colonial governments. Border-crossers maintained long-term ties and regional identities, while both colonial authorities and post-colonial nationalist leaders sought to fix their identities and limit the movement of some Africans across borders.
Dissertation available at Iowa Research Online: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/4877