Nationality in Comoros is regulated by the 1979 Code de la Nationalité, providing for a descent-based system, with equal rights for men and women to transmit nationality to their children, but gender inequality in acquisition of nationality by marriage. The 2001 Constitution provides that no one who is Comorian from birth can be deprived of their nationality; however, the 1979 law provides for loss on acquisition of another nationality (subject to authorisation during the period of military service), leaving the law on dual nationality unclear.

Legislation adopted in 2008 provides for a new class of “economic citizen”, intended for those who make significant investment in Comoros. The deployment of this law to provide nominal citizenship to the stateless “bidoon” of the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, in return for large payments from the Gulf states, has been highly controversial.

The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child has noted concerns at the shortcomings in birth registration in Comoros, which prevent accurate information-gathering on children and therefore impede enforcement on protections afforded to children.