Citizenship in Mozambique is defined by the 1975 Lei da Nacionalidade, as amended 1987 ; this law has not been brought into confirmity with the nationality provisions in the 2004 Constitution. For example, the 2004 constitution provides for dual nationality to be permitted; but the nationality law still provides for loss of nationality on acquisition of another.

In general, the law provides a relatively open regime, giving access to nationality by descent and based on birth and residence in the territory until majority.

In 2009, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child urged improvement in the birth registration process, including increasing access in remote areas and increasing awareness among the public of the need for birth registration.