The framework of citizenship law in Ghana has been amended several times, and is currently set forth in chapter III of the 1992 Constitution and the Citizenship Act 2000. The constitution provides that a person born after it entered into force, whether inside or outside Ghana “shall become a citizen of Ghana at the date of his birth if either of his parents or grandparents is or was citizen of Ghana.” It also provides for a presumption of citizenship in favour of children of unknown parents. Ghana has allowed dual citizenship since amendments to the constitution in 1996.

In 2015, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child welcomed substantial improvements in the area of birth registration, but called for strengthened efforts to ensure all children are registered. The Committee also recommended that Ghana strengthen the protections against statelessness in its national laws. In 2019, Ghana pledged to accede to the two statelessness conventions and to identify groups at risk of statelessness in Ghana.

A large number of refugees from Liberia fled into Ghana during Liberia’s long civil war, which led to a protracted refugee situation of Liberian refugees in Ghana, sparking discussion of whether or not refugees should be allowed to naturalize.

Key Resources